Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics

    címtáras azonosítással

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    Communication Networks

    A tantárgy neve magyarul / Name of the subject in Hungarian: Kommunikációs hálózatok

    Last updated: 2022. november 29.

    Budapest University of Technology and Economics
    Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics
    Software Engineering, BSc course
    Course ID Semester Assessment Credit Tantárgyfélév
    VITMAB06 4 4/0/2/v 7  
    3. Course coordinator and department Dr. Simon Vilmos,
    4. Instructors Dr. Krisztián Németh, Assistant Professor, TMIT 
    Dr. Vilmos Simon, Associate Professor, HIT
    5. Required knowledge Physics, Digital Design, Coding Technology, System Theory
    6. Pre-requisites
    TárgyEredmény( "BMEVIMIAA03" , "aláírás" , _ ) = -1 VAGY
    TárgyEredmény( "BMEVIMIAA02" , "aláírás" , _ ) = -1

    VAGY EgyenCsoportTagja("Kreditpótlás_2023/24/2 ")

    A fenti forma a Neptun sajátja, ezen technikai okokból nem változtattunk.

    A kötelező előtanulmányi rend az adott szak honlapján és képzési programjában található.

    7. Objectives, learning outcomes and obtained knowledge The aim of the course is to familiarize students with the fundamental principles, architectures, and protocols of the structure and operation of communication networks. The course provides useful network basics for all computer engineering students, and at the same time, lays the foundation for those interested to take courses in related specializations. The topics cover the entire architecture of the communication infrastructure – from physical transmission to applications – in which the detailed description of TCP/IP networks is a central element, but wired (Ethernet) and wireless (WLAN/WiFi) local networks are not left out either. The course also covers the different generations of mobile networks and multimedia applications (including voice transmission). The understanding and practical mastery of the covered topics are supported by laboratory exercises.
    8. Synopsis

    Week 1: Introduction

    Introduction, description of the goals and requirements of the course. Motivations for the course.

    Introduction of networks and systems through examples; history, foundations, and architecture of the Internet and long-distance communication. Applications and services, examples. Requirements related to the network. Packet loss and delay.

    Week 2: Protocol architectures

    Protocol architectures, reference models: the ISO OSI reference model, TCP/IP protocol architecture, circuit switching, packet switching, addressing.

    Week 3: Physical and data link layer

    Transmission media and their properties. The physical foundations of radio communication.

    Ethernet. Overview, versions. Structure of the Ethernet frame. Ethernet switches: operation, properties, management. Comparison of switching and routing. Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN).

    Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN). Overview. Characteristics of wireless connections. Wireless local networks based on recommendation IEEE 802.11: architecture, frequency allocation, medium access. The problem of hidden terminals. Organization of frames. Outlook: Bluetooth and Zigbee.

    Week 4: Routing basics

    Interpretation of the task, routing tables, distance vector method, link state method. Hierarchical routing, autonomous systems.

    Week 5:

    Multicast routing.

    Internet Protocol: Tasks, characteristics, and addressing (address classes, private address domains, Classless Inter-Domain Routing, exhaustion of the IPv4 address domain) of IP, IP packet structure.

    Week 6:

    IP routing (RIP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS, BGP), Address Resolution Protocol, IP fragmentation, signaling and management messages of IP (ICMP and IGMP).

    MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS).

    Week 7:

    Traffic control: desirable characteristics of traffic control and its types. Transport layer: the concept of socket, socket types, User Datagram Protocol (port management, header, application).

    Week 8:

    Transmission Control Protocol (main characteristics, segment format, call structure, use of sequence numbers and acknowledgment numbers, cases of retransmission, fast retransmit). Traffic control, congestion control, AIMD, Slow Start, some common applications and the transport protocols used, practical examples of calculation.

    Week 9:

    Network applications.

    Services of the infrastructure: DNS (role and requirements of name resolution, name space, zone and name servers, name resolution process, DNS messages), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

    Mail systems: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, Post Office Protocol, Internet Message Access Protocol.

    Web systems: HyperText Transfer Protocol, persistent and non-persistent connection, message formats, commands, headers.

    Week 10:

    Wireless and mobile networks. Mobile phone systems. Overview, the cellular principle. Characteristics and operation of mobile phone systems. Media access, network architecture, services, identifiers, location registration, call forwarding.

    Generations of mobile phone networks.

    Week 11:

    4G mobile networks: LTE: Long Term Evolution: requirements, media access, resource blocks. Cell capacity. LTE architecture, main protocols. Voice transmission over LTE. VoLTE. VoWiFi.

    5G mobile networks. Requirements. 5G architecture, access and backbone networks. CUPS (Control and User Plane Separation).

    Week 12:

    Analog and digital voice transmission. Characteristics of the speech signal. Digitization of the speech signal: the PCM encoder. Examples of application: voice transmission via telephone, hi-fi-quality digital audio coding. Outlook: other speech encoders. Overview of Next Generation Networks (NGN).

    Week 13:

    Voice over IP, VoIP. Best effort forwarding and IP Quality of Service (QoS). Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP): structure, operation and limitations. Overview of Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).

    Week 14:

    Multimedia networks. Characteristics of motion pictures. Types of multimedia network applications. Streaming over UDP and HTTP. Content distribution networks. IP television (IPTV). IPTV and Internet TV: similarities and differences. IPTV: structure of the head station, details of the media stream. MPEG-2 Transport Stream. Structure of an H.264-encoded data stream. IPTV Quality of Service: measurement, important influencing factors, opportunities of quality improvement.

    Detailed topics of the labs:

    Lab 1: Analysis of the TCP/IP protocol stack, presence lab.

    Getting to know Wireshark (the program itself, capture filter, display filter; Ethernet, IP, ICMP, TCP, UDP headers at an overview level). Getting to know ARP: Request, Reply, Probe and Announcement. Getting to know DHCP: returning an address (Release, Ack), the process of requesting an address (Discover, Offer, Request, Ack). Getting to know ping and traceroute. Establishing and terminating a TCP connection. Counting TCP connections when downloading a complex webpage. Analyzing TCP congestion control. Analyzing TCP options.

    Lab 2: Examining application, presence lab.

    DNS: Analysis of "A", "PTR" and "AAAA" record request and response. SMTP: sending mails "by hand" using the commands of the SMTP protocol, distinguishing the envelope sender/recipient and the header fields of the mail. POP3: mailbox management (USER, PASS, STAT, LIST, RETR, DELE, RSET, QUIT commands). FTP: data transfer with a client application, and in the meantime:

    a) analysis of active and passive modes with Wireshark: from where to where is the data connection established?

    b) analysis of BIN and ASCII transmission modes, what happens with a text file, what happens with a jpg file?

    Analysis of data transfer in FTP PASV mode using telnet.

    HTTP: GET command versions 1.0 and 1.1 (Host: specification, virtual webservers). Analysis of ssh and scp: key generation, login with key-based authentication, file copying with scp.

    Lab 3: Analysis of IPv6 operation and IPv6 transition technologies, presence lab.

    Analysis of the stateless address autoconfiguration (SLAAC) process (studying neighbor solicitation, router solicitation, router advertisement messages, checking the correctness of link-local and global unicast addresses, modified EUI-64 calculation). DNS64: setting a common DNS64 server as a name server, then name resolution: analysis of an IPv4-embedded IPv6 address. Configuring and using a DNS64 server under Linux (checking what passes before and after the DNS64 server). Accessing IPv4-only servers via a common NAT64 gateway: first with HTTP, then with FTP, in passive and in mode. Testing additional applications (SMTP, POP3). What IPv4 routers (with IPv4-embedded IPv6 address) look like in the output of traceroute. Using a NAT64 gateway on local Linux (TAYGA + IPTABLES preconfigured) and using Wireshark to check what passes before and after the NAT64 gateway.

    Lab 4: Voice over IP (VoIP), remote lab.

    During the lab session, the student learns about Voice over IP. The student gains experience in the following topics: IP-based desktop and software phones, telephone services, computer virtualization and network packet analysis. Each student can also try out his/her own virtualized IP telephone center.

    Lab 5: IP television (IPTV), remote lab.

    The purpose of the lab session is for the students to familiarize themselves with the network context of the Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) technology, with special emphasis on multicast-based IP packet transmission and on the network aspects of Quality of Service guarantees. The students learn about multicast IP transmission, the methods and protocols used to transmit IPTV video streams, and perform measurements to determine the main network parameters of the service and the Quality of Service.

    Lab 6: Local networks: Ethernet and WiFi, remote lab.

    The purpose of the lab session is for the students to familiarize themselves with the basic operating characteristics of Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) wired and WiFi (IEEE 802.11) wireless local networks in practice through traffic. After studying the Ethernet protocol with a protocol analyzer, the students have the opportunity to configure dedicated WiFi base stations, to monitor the effect of settings and parameters on operation, while also using their own devices (e.g., mobile phone) to check connection characteristics and transmission quality.

    10. Assessment

    During the teaching period:

    During the semester, there will be one mid-term exam, for which at least 50% of the points must be obtained in order to become eligible for the exam. It is also mandatory to complete all six lab exercises – at least with a passing grade – for eligibility.

    The lab exercises will be held partly in attendance, and partly remotely.

    Rules for presence labs:

    1. Students must prepare for lab exercises in advance. This is checked at the beginning of the session. In case of insufficient preparation (fail grade for the test at the beginning), participation in the lab session is not allowed.

    2. At the end of the session, the student's work is evaluated, which includes the results of the preparation check, the performance during the session, and the quality of the student's report.

    3. Absence from a lab session results in fail grade for the session.

    Rules for remote labs:

    1. After the necessary preparation, the student can complete the work at any time prior to the announced deadline.

    2. At a pre-announced time, a supervisor will be available to the students, who will answer the questions online.

    3. The completed report must be uploaded to a pre-specified location. The report must also be presented in person at a pre-specified time, at which questions will be asked to make sure that the report is the student's own work. Based on all this, the student's work will be graded. If the student does not appear at the pre-specified time or cannot answer the questions in a sufficient manner, the lab session is marked with fail grade.

    During the exam period:

    Written exam. The grade obtained for the mid-term exam (or any of the repetitions) contributes 10%, and the average of the grades obtained for the lab sessions contribute 20% to the final grade. At least 50% of the points of the written exam must be obtained in order to pass the course.

    It is possible to obtain a grade offer via the mid-term exam (this is not applicable to the recaps). Condition of grade offer: the mid-term exam is completed with an excellent grade, and all of the lab sessions are also completed with excellent grades. Lab sessions may be completed after the mid-term exam.

    11. Recaps

    It is possible to repeat the mid-term exam once during the teaching period, and once during repetition week. According to the Code of Studies and Exams of BME valid during the preparation of this course information: "Students are only allowed to participate in second retakes or repeat completions of summative assessments if they have participated in the assessment or its first retake, repeat or late completion." Therefore, in the case of this course, participation in the repetition during repetition week only if the student participated in the mid-term exam or its repetition during the teaching period (or both).

    One presence lab and one remote lab may be repeated during the teaching period or repetition week.

    Remote lab sessions may be repeated in a remote manner (at home), and must be presented prior the announced deadline, at the announced times. Therefore, a repeated remote lab session entails a repeated presentation obligation.

    12. Consultations

    Based on request, the lecturers of the course are available to the students. The place, time and format of this will be discussed together.

    Materials of the lectures and the guides provided for the lab sessions.

    13. References, textbooks and resources

    Available literature:

    James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross: Computer Networking, 8th Edition, Pearson, 2021 (ISBN-13: 9780135928615)

    14. Required learning hours and assignment
    Preparing to lectures
    Preparing to midterm tests
    Preparing the homework
    Studying the given written material (preparation for lab measurements)
    Preparing to the exam
    Sum (Total)
    15. Syllabus prepared by

    Dr. Tibor Cinkler, associate prof, TMIT 

    Dr. Gábor Lencse, senior research fellow, HIT 

    Dr. Krisztián Németh, assistant prof, TMIT 

    Dr. Vilmos Simon, associate prof, HIT