Belépés címtáras azonosítással
magyar nyelvű adatlap
angol nyelvű adatlap
A tantárgy neve magyarul / Name of the subject in Hungarian: Informatika 1
Last updated: 2017. június 22.
Digital design 2
A fenti forma a Neptun sajátja, ezen technikai okokból nem változtattunk.
A kötelező előtanulmányi rendek grafikus formában itt láthatók.
The objective is to provide the students with
comprehensive knowledge related to the architecture and functioning principles
of computers and their operating systems.
The knowledge acquired in the framework of the subject
allows students to understand the documentation and the functioning of
computers and operating systems. They will be also able to carry out
installation, configuration and maintenance tasks of such systems.
Typical functional units and
block-diagram of computers. The von Neumann principle. Modularity and
multiprocessing. Typical properties of CPUs, the hardware-software interface:
instruction set, registers, flags, memory map, memory access, interrupt system,
I/O system. Features supporting the use of high level languages.
Increasing performance of computers:
Increasing instruction execution throughput, concurrent
execution inside processors. The pipe-line principle, instruction dependencies,
coprocessors. Effect of the number and complexity of instructions on the
performance. CISC vs. RISC processors.
Hierarchical memory organization. Improving memory
access speed. Cache organization, mapping policies. Memory interleave
technique, burst transmission. Increasing the addressable memory size, virtual
Support for multiprogramming
Memory organization, protection features and their
implementation. Privilege levels, privileged instructions, system calls, task
switching, context switch. Atomic operations.
Polling vs. interrupt driven IO, DMA, dedicated I/O
processors. Standardization of I/O peripherals. Magnetic disc drives: storage
principle, encoding, track, sector, softsector organization. Other typical
Loosely or tightly coupled systems, physical or
logical levels of coupling. Typical implementation of interprocessor communications.
Bus hierarchy levels: device, part, card level busses.
Typical bus connected modules and their functions. Addressing modes, logical
and geographical addressing, address domains. Bus timing, synchronous,
asynchronous, semi synchronous, interlocked, non interlocked, partly
interlocked systems. Bus controllers, control policies on multi-master buses.
Static or dynamic bus allocation. Bus allocation and deallocation (arbitration)
policies. Centralized and decentralized arbitration. Wireless bus
interconnects. Important standards.
General features, interfaces. Typical services,
hardware requirements, system calls, system software and device drivers. Event
driven programming, virtual machine concept, client-server, cloud based
architectures. Safety functions, protection features.
Program execution as a process. Execution more
programs concurrently on the same processor. The concept of threads and
resources. Coupling between processes: competition or cooperation. Basic cases
of process cooperation: common memory or message passing.
Common memory based cooperation:
The need for synchronization. Basic cases of
synchronization: mutual exclusion, precedence, coincidence. Software
implementations. Hardware support with atomic operations. The semaphore.
Solving synchronization problems with semaphores. Implementation of a semaphore
in a multiprogramming environment.
Cooperation trough message passing:
Communication subsystems. Terminology. Synchronous or
asynchronous communication, the condition of semantic consistency. Effect of
The definition and necessary conditions of a deadlock.
Modeling resource allocation in multiprogrammed systems, the resource
allocation graph. Deadlocks and resource starvation. Deadlock avoidance,
detection an handling strategies.
Multiprogrammed operating systems:
Basic concepts of multiprogramming, new tasks of the
OS. Queuing and state model of tasks. Schedulers. Task contexts, the data
structures required to implement multiprogramming.
CPU as a special kind of resource. FCFS, SJF, priority
based, non preemptive and preemptive time slot based scheduling algorithms.
Multilevel scheduling queues. Assessment of different schedulers.
Address calculation. Relocatability and problems with
reentrant (recursive) code sections. Linking and loading of programs. Object
modules, libraries, static, dynamic linking, relocation. Load time or runtime
dynamic linking. Problems with memory allocation.
Virtual memory management:
Concept of page based virtual memory, the cooperation
of hardware-software. Page faults, effective access time. The concept of
thrashing. Page fault handling algorithms. Working set, the concept of dynamic
local memory management based on the page fault rate.
Disc management and file systems:
Tasks of the disc management layer. Improving
effectiveness of disc operations. Files and directories as data structures.
File models, allocation methods, administration of free space on a disc.
Protection mechanisms against data corruption and unauthorized access. Opening
and closing files. I/O subsystem, connection of devices, the levels of
interfaces. The role of device drivers. Device independent interfaces.
Character and block based devices.
Modern embedded operating systems:
The effect of low resources on the performance of an
There are two midterm tests during the semester,
with 30 points each. The midterm mark is calculated accordingly:
0-23 points : 1
24-32 points: 2
33-41 points: 3
42-50 points: 4
51-60 points: 5
There is no exam.
Flynn - Wayne Luk: Computer System Design (Wiley, ISBN 978-0-470-64336-5)
Van de Goor,A.J.: Computer
architecture and design. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1989.
Wilkinson, B.: Computer
architecture, design and performance. Prentice Hall, 1991.
Peter B. Galvin, Greg Gagne: Operating system concepts, 8th edition,
Dr. György Pilászy