Belépés címtáras azonosítással
magyar nyelvű adatlap
angol nyelvű adatlap
A tantárgy neve magyarul / Name of the subject in Hungarian: Villamos alapismeretek
Last updated: 2022. augusztus 30.
Dr. Richárd Berényi, Associate Professor, BME-ETT
Dr. Attila Géczy, Associate Professor, BME-ETTDr. Levente Dudás, Associate Professor, BME-HVT
The main objective of the course is to familiarise students with the physical fundamentals of electricity, which is essential in their profession and in everyday life, and its practical application in computing devices. An important aim of the course is to provide insight into the operation, circuitry and design of devices that execute programs.Students are introduced to the conceptual framework of basic electrical quantities, and are introduced to the subject of electrical networks. Then, by describing sinusoidal and periodic signals and explaining transient behaviour, they move on to a more theoretical level where active electronic components can be studied in conceptual and simple working models. They are also introduced to the hardware fundamentals of digital technology by introducing the topic of integrated circuits. The fundamentals of electronic design and assembly techniques will also be introduced to develop a hardware approach. As an introductory, and at the same time systematic, topic, the perception of physical reality by sensors is covered.
It is important that the curriculum concludes with an example of a working circuit, so that the student can relate theory to practice.
During the laboratory exercises, students will learn the basics of laboratory work (equipment, basic requirements, report writing), the use of measuring instruments, simple signals, passive and active components. And by studying pulse parameters and circuit transients, they can link theory to practice and physical reality.
1. Introduction, purpose of
the subject, requirements. Basic electrical quantities 1.
- Fundamentals of conductive,
insulating, semiconducting properties.
- Electric charge, types,
Coulomb's force law, electroscope.
- Electrical voltage,
potential, QCU law.
- Electric field,
electric charge storage, capacitor construction.
- Simple examples from
everyday life. Connecting theoretical models with reality.
2: Electricity base
conductor magnetic field, solenoid and toroid coil.
- Lorenz power law, Lenz
- Energy stored in
electric and magnetic fields, work.
- Electric power.
3: Electricity base
- Resistance, Ohm's law.
- Real sources: voltage
and current generator, internal resistance, no-load voltage, short-circuit
current, clamp voltage.
- Chemical sources: dry
cell, battery, properties. Mechanical sources: engine, generator plant.
Photoelectric sources: solar cell, light bulb, LED.
4: Electricity networks:
- Kirchhoff laws.
- Voltage and current
divider. Method of node potentials.
- Example solution:
calculation of a series, parallel, mixed resistor network.
5: Sinusoidal and
peak-to-peak, phase, frequency, periodic time, characteristic waveforms.
- Complex numbers,
complex peak values in simple terms. Impedance basics.
- Transformer, voltage,
speed, power, efficiency.
- The basics of serial
RLC (resonant circuit).
6: Transient behaviour:
- Jump signal, transient
capacitor RZ, coil SZ.
- Square wave excitation,
forward propagation for digital data transmission.
- The concept of a time
- rise and fall times.
- Delay time.
7: Active electronic
- Basics of semiconductor
- Semiconductor diode,
structure, equation, characteristics, LED.
- Bipolar transistor structure,
transistor effect, operating conditions, design conditions, 2 transistor basic
equation + BE diode equation.
8: Active electronic
- Bipolar transistor, amplifier
and switch operation.
- Structure, operation, characteristics,
amplifier and switching operation of a quad-circuit MOS transistor.
- CMOS basics.
- 9: Operational
- Model, basic operation.
- Non-inverting, inverting
- Operational amplifier
components, leg assignment, supply voltages, simple audio case study.
10: Digital Electronics
- NAME system, truth
- Inverter with bipolar
and MOS transistor.
- DDR AND gateway
- DDR OR gateway
- NAND, NOR, XOR - CMOS
- 1 bit info storage as
SRAM cell (quasi D-flip-flop).
- Structure of electronic
- System design from the
idea to the finished electronic construction.
- Power supply, fixing,
boxing, connectors, connections.
- Earthing, double
insulation, contact protection, ergonomics.
12: Electronics assembly
- R, L, C, D, T, IC
encapsulations, forms of appearance.
- Surface mounting.
- Manual soldering,
assembly in mass production.
13: Sensing physical
reality with electrical output devices, sensing.
- The concept of sensor
and its place in electronic systems.
- Examples of sensors:
light detection. Light sensing, Temperature sensing, MEMS acceleration sensor,
14: Systems engineering,
- Block diagram of the
implemented example circuit.
- Interpretation of
- Presentation of PCB.
- 3D presentation of PCB.
- In-house printed wiring
- Printed wiring plate
design tutorial - sample circuit.
- Demonstration of the
physical hardware, referring back to what has been learned so far,
Lab 1: Introduction to
the laboratory, requirements, accident and fire training.
- Introduction to the
protocol writing process, basic requirements and structure of a good
- Getting to know the instruments
- Basic measurement of DC
and AC signals.
- Basic measurement of
Lab 2: Testing active
- Diode, LED, bipolar,
field-effect transistor testing.
- Investigation of basic
Lab 3: Time domain signal
- Amplifier and switch
power supply testing.
- Examination of pulse
parameters: rise and fall times, delay, time constant.
At the beginning of the laboratory sessions, a short (about 15 minutes) level assessment is written, which can be prepared from pre-issued measurement aids.
There will also be a summative assessment (final exam) during the semester.
A signature is obtained by the student who has fulfilled all the following conditions:- Successfully participated in all three laboratory exercises, i.e.- successfully completed the entry level assessment, performed and documented the measurement tasks to a satisfactory standard.At least a satisfactory level in the final exam.During the exam period The course ends with a written exam, which determines the final grade.
During the exam period: The course ends with a written exam, which determines the final grade.
According to the Code of Studies, there is a one-off possibility to
supplement or improve the summative assessment. During the make-up period, an
additional make-up exam will be held.
laboratory session can be made up during the semester, typically at the end of
the semester during the make-up period.
The percentage of extra tasks scored in the summative assessment is 25%.
Plus IMSc points can be earned above a 75% pass mark in the summative assessments.
The maximum IMSc score in the subject is 15.
IMSc credits are also available to students who do not participate in the programme.