Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics

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    Solar Cells Laboratory Practice

    A tantárgy neve magyarul / Name of the subject in Hungarian: Napelemek laboratórium

    Last updated: 2019. május 6.

    Budapest University of Technology and Economics
    Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics
    Electrical Engineering


    Software Engineering


    Free Elective subject
    Course ID Semester Assessment Credit Tantárgyfélév
    VIEEBV00   1/0/1/f 2  
    3. Course coordinator and department Dr. Plesz Balázs,
    4. Instructors

    Dr. Mizsei János


    Elektronikus Eszközök Tsz

    Dr. Plesz Balázs

    associate professor

    Elektronikus Eszközök Tsz

    Dr. Neumann Péter Lajos

    assistant professor

    Elektronikus Eszközök Tsz

    5. Required knowledge Electron physics, Physics, Microelectronics


    6. Pre-requisites
    NEM ( TárgyTeljesítve("BMEVIEEM358"))
    NEM ( TárgyTeljesítve("BMEVIEEJV55"))
    NEM ( TárgyTeljesítve("BMEVIEE9356"))

    A fenti forma a Neptun sajátja, ezen technikai okokból nem változtattunk.

    A kötelező előtanulmányi rend az adott szak honlapján és képzési programjában található.

    The subject cannot be added if the student completed the following subjects:


    VIEEM358 Solar Cells Manufacturing and VIEEJV55 Integrated Circuit Manufacturing. The preliminary study of the course VIEEAV99 Solar Cells and Renewable Energy Sources is advised, but not compulsory.


    7. Objectives, learning outcomes and obtained knowledge Aim of the subject is to offer an outline on the solar cell’s device physics, manufacturing and technology. During the semester we offer each student the possibility of manufacturing a monocrystalline Si based solar cell in our semiconductor laboratory. The students get acquainted with basic semiconductor fabrication processes, as well as with the influences of the applied technological steps on device operation. The second important objective of the subject is the presentation of the measuring techniques applied to solar cells. The discussion of the problems arising during the measurements contributes to the better understanding of the solar cell operation, thus the students can deepen their theoretical knowledge.
    8. Synopsis 1st. block


    Introduction to the operation of solar cells, review of the main parameters and characteristics.


    Different raw materials and solar cell types.


    2nd. block


    Introduction to solar cell technology, overview of the basic steps of manufacturing.


    Fabrication of mono-/multi-crystalline silicon, wafer processing and physical parameters.


    3rd. block


    Si wafer types, measurement of their physical parameters, characterization of the raw material (geometrical dimensions, doping types and doping concentrations).


    Overview of clean room, function of the clean environment in semiconductor technology.


    4th. block


    Wet chemical cleaning of Si wafer, surface texturing, and optical microscopy applied to examine the textured surface.


    Backside BSF layer formation with solid phase diffusion, doping material predeposition.


    5th. block


    Theoretical review and practical basics of the thermal oxidation of Si, demonstrations and comparison of different oxidized Si wafers.


    Calculation of the thermal oxide thickness, simulations.


    6th. block


    PSG etching from the back surface, chemical preparation of the wafer and thermal oxidation with calculated parameters.


    Thickness measurement of oxide layer, photoresist coating of the wafer.


    7th. block


    Theoretical review of the solid phase diffusion.


    Determination of the diffusion parameters of the solar cell by simulation.


    8th. block


    Front surface oxide etching, pre-deposition and drive-in of the doping material.


    Diffusion step characterization: sheet resistance and junction depth measurement, followed by photoresist coating of the Si wafer.


    9th. block


    Theoretical basics of UV lithography, overview of lithographic devices employed in semiconductor technology.


    Opening of contact windows on the surface of the wafer using wet chemical etching methods.


    10th. block


    Metallization of the solar cell, metal layer deposition with vacuum evaporation.


    Metal layer thickening by galvanic deposition, measurement of metal layer thickness.


    11th. block


    Theoretical overview of measurement techniques used in case of solar cells, presentation of the measuring equipment.


    Demonstration of the I-V characterisation techniques by manual measurement for both solar cells and solar modules.


    12th. block


    Characterisation of the manufactured solar cell with automatic equipment, comparison between manual and automatic characterisation methods, determination of thermal dependencies of the cell parameters.


    Measurement of solar cells manufactured with different technologies, comparison of the results.


    13th. block


    Presentation of the concept and the measuring technique of spectral response function. Performing the spectral response measurement, obtaining spectral responses at different temperatures. Drawing conclusions from obtained spectral responses, correlation between the measured electrical parameters.  


    Correlations between reflexion of the incoming light and the efficiency of the solar cells, reflexion measurements on different surface qualities.


    14th. block


    Writing of the mid-semester test, handing in the report.


    9. Method of instruction Lesson based overview of the theoretical bases for the laboratory practices, followed by manufacturing technology and measurement/characterization operations performed in the semiconductor laboratory.


    10. Assessment During the term:


    One mid-semester test. To obtain the mid-semester mark a mid-semester test with at least the mark “sufficient” and the full completion of every laboratory practice is necessary.


    11. Recaps An opportunity of a supplementary mid-semester test is provided in case of an unsuccessful mid-semester test in the term period. During the repeat period one additional supplementary mid-semester test can be written. The laboratory practice due to the high costs of the technologies applied can only be repeated during the term, based on special agreement.


    12. Consultations Personal discussion with the lecturers.


    13. References, textbooks and resources M. A. Green: Applied Photovoltaics


    A. Luque: Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering


    T. Markvart , L. Castaner: Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics, Elsevier Science, 2003.


    Photovoltaics CDROM,


    14. Required learning hours and assignment
    Mid-term preparations for lessons10
    Preparation for test10
    Házi feladat elkészítése 
    Study of written materials12
    15. Syllabus prepared by




    Department, Institute:


    Dr. Mizsei János




    Dept. of Electron Devices


    Timárné Horváth Veronika


    Associate Professor h.c.


    Dept. of Electron Devices