Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics

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    Solar Cells and Renewable Energy Sources

    A tantárgy neve magyarul / Name of the subject in Hungarian: Napelemek és megújuló energiaforrások

    Last updated: 2012. április 26.

    Budapest University of Technology and Economics
    Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics
    Electrical Engineering

     

    Software Engineering

     

    Free Elective subject
    Course ID Semester Assessment Credit Tantárgyfélév
    VIEEAV99   4/0/0/v 4  
    3. Course coordinator and department Dr. Mizsei János, Elektronikus Eszközök Tanszéke
    4. Instructors
    Name:

     

    Status

     

    Department, Institute.:

     

    Dr. Mizsei János

     

    Professor

     

    Dept. of Electron Devices

     

    Plesz Balázs

     

    Research Assistant.

     

    Dept. of Electron Devices

     

    Timárné Horváth Veronika

     

    Associate Professor h.c.

     

    Dept. of Electron Devices

     

    5. Required knowledge Electron physics, Physics, Microelectronics

     

    6. Pre-requisites
    Ajánlott:
    -
    7. Objectives, learning outcomes and obtained knowledge The subject gives a short description of the well known and spread renewable energy sources, regarding the limited fossil fuels available and the undesired environmental impact caused by their usage. During the lessons the students can get acquainted with socio-economical impacts, basic environment protection principles, electron physics of solar cells, different constructional and technological knowledge regarding renewable energy. The main part of the course is based on solar cells and their usage, with placing emphasis on the semiconductor topics: physics and technology.  

     

    8. Synopsis Interaction between fossil fuels and the environment. General overview and comparison of renewable energy sources. Direct conversion of solar energy into electric energy. PV devices. Basics of solid state physics, the p-n junction, mathematical description. Structure, operation of solar cells, parasitic elements in the solar cell model. Theoretical efficiency of solar cells. Definition of spectral response.

    Types of solar cells. Application of concentrators. Thermal issues.

    Special solar cell structures, materials used. Multi-junction structures, spherical structure, nanostructures, organic solar cells.

    Basics of semiconductor technology, manufacturing of solar cells. Real solar cell losses.

    Characterisation of solar cells, measurement of characteristics, measurement techniques, overview of the equipments.

    Production of solar modules, practical efficiency of modules.

    The significance of solar tracking. Tracker classification, energy balance.

    Application of solar cells: stand-alone systems, sizing of systems, local energy storage. Grid connection, application of inverters, feedback to the grid, instabilities. Solar power plants.

    Combined systems, sustainability, roadmaps.

    Energy harvesting.

    Industrial visit, one of the following: CIGS laboratory of MFA, Semilab Rt. Weekly breakdown:

    1. week:

    Lecture A.: Review of the course, subject requirements. Significance of the renewable energy sources and solar cells, overall comparison of renewable energy sources. Interaction between fossil fuels and environment.

    Lecture B: Basics of solid state physics, main parameters of semiconductors, photoelectric effect. I.   2. week:

    Lecture A: Characteristics of hydropower and wind power, pumped- storage power plants, tidal plants, wind generators, offshore wind generators.

    Lecture B: Basics of solid state physics, main parameters of semiconductors, photoelectric effect. II.

    3.  week:

    Lecture A: Characteristics of geothermal energy, comparison. Biomass characteristics, utilization methods.

    Lecture B: N and P type semiconductors, p-n junction, illuminated p-n junction, minority carrier diffusion, generation and recombination phenomena.  

    4.  week:

    Lecture A: Operation of semiconductor based solar cells, solar cell model, theoretical efficiency, intensity and temperature dependence.

    Lecture B: I-V characteristics of solar cells, maximum power point, and operation under load.

    5..week:

    Lecture A: Spectral behaviour and response of solar cells.

    Lecture B: Connection between spectral sensitivity and manufacturing technology, thermal behaviour of spectral response.

    6.  week:

    Lecture A: Thermal utilization of solar energy, solar collectors.

    Lecture B: Basic solar cell structures, importance of the BSF, metal-semiconductor contact.

    7.  week:

    Lecture A: Active and passive usage of solar energy in buildings. Building integrated photovoltaic systems.

    Lecture B: Impact of parasitic parameters, connection between raw material defects and solar cell operation.

    8.  week:

    Lecture A: The issue of alternative fuels, the necessity of energy concentration, bio fuel usage and its limitations. Lecture B: Effect of concentration on solar cells, concentrator systems.

    9.  week:

    Lecture A: Manufacturing technology of solar cells: raw materials, raw material qualification and methods, manufacturing of raw materials, crystalline thin film technologies.

    Lecture B: Manufacturing technology of solar cells: crystalline solar cell doping methods, physical basics of diffusion mechanisms, solid and gas phase doping, selective emitter technology.

    10.  week:

    Lecture A: Manufacturing technology of solar cells: Physical and chemical deposition methods, vacuum evaporation, sputtering, CVD, LP-CVD, vacuum systems.

    Lecture B: Role and impact of the surface texturing, wet and dry chemical etching, physical basics of antireflexion coatings, one and multilayered antireflexion coatings, materials of ARC layers.

    11.  week:

    Lecture A: Thin film solar cells: structure, operating principle, role and manufacturing of the transparent conducting layer, amorphous Si solar cells, CIGS and CdTe structures, degradation of amorphous structures.

    Lecture B: Special and novel solar cell structures, multi-junction solar cells, III-V heterojunction semiconductor solar cells, spherical structure, nanostructures, and organic solar cells.

    12.  week:

    Lecture A: Characterisation of solar cells, measurement of the I-V characteristics, spectral response measurements, sun simulators, advanced measurement techniques and equipment, noncontact measurement methods.

    Lecture B: Assembly of solar cells into modules, practical usage in stand alone systems (terrestrial and space applications), energy storage and batteries.

    13.  week:

    Lecture A: Issue of grid connection, application of inverters, grid reliability.

    Lecture B: The significance of solar tracking. Types of solar trackers, energy balance.

    14.  week:

    Lecture A: Industrial visit

    Mid-semester test

     

     

    9. Method of instruction The course consists of oral lectures with practical examples and case studies. In certain cases online computer demonstrations are available.

     

    10. Assessment a.      During the term:          One mid-semester test. In order to be eligible for the exam the students have to reach at least the  mark      “sufficient” at the mid-semester test.

    b.      During examination period:

            The course is closed with an exam. The evaluation mode is written exam, the students will be graded from “sufficient” to “good”. The students can improve the grade by taking an oral exam.

              c.          Pre-examination:

     The course has a pre-exam opportunity, with no preset condition.

     

    11. Recaps An opportunity of a supplementary mid-semester test is provided in case of an unsuccessful mid-semester test in the term period. During the repeat period one additional supplementary mid-semester test can be written.

     

    12. Consultations Personal discussion with the lecturers before mid-semester test.

     

    13. References, textbooks and resources

    M. A. Green: Applied Photovoltaics

    A. Luque: Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering

    T. Markvart: Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics

    W.H.Kemp: The Renewable Energy Handbook: A guide of rural energy independence, off-grid and sustainable living

     

    14. Required learning hours and assignment
    Lessons56
    Mid-term preparations for lessons20
    Preparation for test24
    Házi feladat elkészítése
    Kijelölt írásos tananyag elsajátítása
    Preparation for exam20
    Total120
    15. Syllabus prepared by
    Name:

     

    Status

     

    Department, Institute.:

     

    Dr. Mizsei János

     

    Professor

     

    Dept. of Electron Devices

     

    Plesz Balázs

     

    Research Assistant.

     

    Dept. of Electron Devices

     

    Timárné Horváth Veronika

     

    Associate Professor h.c.

     

    Dept. of Electron Devices